Added: Caron Seth - Date: 28.12.2021 12:05 - Views: 36016 - Clicks: 2912
There is substantial social unrest underlying the prevailing neocolonial political and societal structure in Martinique. It is burdened with chronic high rate of unemployment rate and continuing rising cost of imported food and other basic necessities of life. Banana is the foremost plantation crop grown in Martinique. There is also an ecological disaster arising from the widespread use of carcinogenic chlordecone for controlling banana pests for more than 3 decades.
Although this practice had stopped inthe recalcitrant pesticide remained largely in the soil. The challenge to create meaningful new jobs under these social-economic and environmental constraints is thus formidable.
It is situated about 7, km from metropolitan France. Most tourists are oblivious to the deep undercurrent of social and cultural discontents simmering in this island paradise. The main industrial crops are sugar cane and bananas. Both sugar cane and bananas are not native to this region Deerr, ; Earle, ; Kennedy, Plantation cropping of sugar cane began in the mid th century with the mass importation of slave workers from Africa, after the original indigenous Carib inhabitants had been exterminated.
The of persons engaged and dependent directly on the banana plantation industry was about 6, in Cour des comptes, With increased mechanization through the shift of crops to large tracts of flat terrain, fewer workers are required in the cropping and post-harvesting operations during the past 20 years GOI, Figure 1. Principal areas of sugar cane and banana cropping in Martinique. Source: Map from www. Figure 2. Production of bananas and sugar Private sex in Martinique in Martinique Societal stratification along race and class lines remain deeply entrenched long after the formal abolition of slavery in Martinique in Brereton, One result of these French government policies has been the formalization of the alienation of the people from land and culture.
As result, critical political decision affecting the life and wellbeing of the Martiniquans are taken solely in Paris. The political power in Martinique remains however with the Prefect who is appointed directly by the President in metropolitan France. And key administrative posts are still filled only by government officials sent from metropolitan France.
In essence, locally elected council officials continue to have little or no administrative or fiscal power of consequence. The 4 elected Deputies and 2 elected Senators have virtually no influence in the politics of metropolitan France on the direction of social and economic affairs of Martinique. This Royal edict was deed to impose the dominance of French language and culture for the development of French identity during the course of territorial consolidation of the French state over the next years.
Some examples of this cultural-domination policy within present-day boundaries of metropolitan France are the draconian francisation of Occitans, Bretons, Catalans, Corsicans and Basques. In overseas territories, francisation in the eradication of indigenous cultural identity.
Naipaul had marveled at the Gallic pretension of the Martiniquan society in the maintaining the fictionality of metropolitan France. In the fictionalization of Caribbean history, Michener had commented on the irrational pretension of the culture of Martinique and Guadeloupe to be that of metropolitan France. It is interesting to note that in metropolitan France today, there is increasing discourse over the issue of national identity de la Siega, ; Lichfield, It is about 3 times higher than that in metropolitan France Anon, a; Anon, a.
The persistent high rate of unemployment rate among persons under 30 years of age is especially acute. It is interesting to note that all DOMs, viz. Figure 3. Historical unemployment rate in Martinique. Figure 4 shows that the projected emigration of young people to metropolitan France and elsewhere would result in the steady increase in the median age of the population of Martinique in the coming decades.
The population in Martinique was aboutin Figure 4. Projected net migration between Private sex in Martinique and changes in age structure of population versus of Martinique. Source: Horatius-Clovis, Some short-term concessions such as an immediate labour wage supplement Private sex in Martinique. But the underlying social-economic issues including class exclusion, cultural alienation, rising cost of food staples, inadequate labour wages, and chronic high level of unemployment have remained largely unresolved in the 2 years after the general strike.
Increases in the prevalence of prostate and breast cancers in Martinique as well as Guadeloupe have now been reported Landau-Ossondo, ; Multigner et al. Chlordecone has a high affinity for solid particles such as soil and organic matter Fernandes et al. Chlordecone is recalcitrant to degradation by natural chemical, biological and photolytic means ATSDR, Interestingly, it has been noted that the natural degradation of chlordecone in Martinique soil would require about years Anon, b.
Numerous ways and means have been proposed and are being studied Anon, c. This remediation research strategy does not appear to afford a final resolution of the chlordecone pollution in the foreseeable future. A massive one-time scheme to remediate chlordecone-contaminated soil has been proposed recently Wong, There has been a conspicuous official silence on this matter.
Indeed, the people have been warned by the local authorities to refrain from eating self-produced vegetables Dubuisson et al. Continued transport of chlordecone from soil to food stuff will continue to endanger human health. In a study of chlordecone contamination of aquatic fauna in coastal waters of Martinique, Coat et al. It is postulated that the chlordecone has been transported involuntarily by vehicle tires and by human footware from the banana-growing region into the land area of Fort-de-France, and then the inadvertently-transported contaminated soil particles are washed into the bay through normal precipitation run-offs.
Unlike open coastal areas, the turnover of water in Baie de Fort-de-France is relatively slow. Chlordecone is thus reasoned to bioaccumulate more intensively in the aquatic-fauna food chain of Baie Fort-de-France. Indeed the local political leadership has failed to protect the people of Martinique. Strachan has noted that tourism economy is largely a re-creation of the plantation economy in which colonial ideologies and economics prevail. European and North American tourists are offered luxurious accommodation style which is a re-creation of past colonial era, in which workers syn.
Local culture would be promoted principally for the attraction of foreign tourists, and not for reasons of cultural revival Burton, This form of ethno-tourism demeans the cultural integrity of the indigenous people. Menial jobs are created under relentless pressure to suppress wages in competition against the neighbouring Caribbean islands which are not tied to the wage structure of metropolitan France.
Table 1 shows the comparative minimum wage scale between Martinique and independent states in the Antilles. Table 1: Gross minimum wage scale in selected countries of the Antilles in Identical to France at government-prescribed Data from various government sources. However, even if the base wage differential with other Eastern Caribbean islands was ignored, the extensive pollution of Martinique soil by chlordecone would effectively Private sex in Martinique this eco-tourism possibility.
It has yet to be proposed and promoted as a novel means to revive the Martiniquan economy. Figure 5 illustrates the recent pattern of Martinique import and exports of agricultural products and food. The balance of trade is chronically distorted. The principal exports are heavily-subvented bananas to metropolitan France and refined petroleum products to nearby Guadeloupe, the other Antillean DOM. Crude petroleum is imported routinely for processing at the Fort-de-France refinery into gasoline, gas-oil and other petroleum-based products.
In essence, Martinique external trade has effectively no comparative or absolute advantages. Figure 5: Martinique external trade of agricultural products and food. The problems are well described, but there appears to be an acute absence of development and implementation of new remedial strategies Desse, ; Desse and Selise, Thinking on this Perhaps not coincidentally, a similar economic dysfunction exists in other DOMs Simon, Figure 6.
Figure 6: Example imbalance of import-export trade and high rate of unemployment in the DOMs. Exportation of young people to France becomes the only means to reduce social discontent. All Martiniquans are effectively citizens of the French Republic. They have complete freedom to seek employment in metropolitan France when there are no prospects of any meaningful jobs in Martinique.
It is generally recognized that people would prefer to stay in their homeland for cultural and social reasons if there were no compelling economic circumstances to cause migration Llana, It is thus not surprising that there are considerable repressed frustration and anger among many Matiniquans. These EC regulations were deed largely to serve the prevailing product standards and economic interest of mainland EU producers and consumers. Because Martinique is a DOM of France, the importation of food could only be effectively sourced from the European Union suppliers, viz. Coincidentally, the extensive chlordecone contamination of local water and food supply also strengthens the business interest of importers of alimentary products from France.
Extensive contamination of the soil, water, flora and fauna by the past widespread use of toxic chlordecone pesticide is an additional development barrier. For different political reasons, both obstacles are not easy to overcome. New agriculture 1 could be implemented in earnest with the primary goal of food self-sufficiency, after the island soil has been fully de-contaminated 2.
As a part of the negotiated settlement with Martinique, metropolitan France should accept full financial responsibility for the total of clean-up of all chlordecone-contaminated soil. France has never had a history of voluntary relinquishment of its overseas empire.
Witness the bitter and bloody battles over the independence of HaitiVietnam and Algeria from France.
Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Propagation of the neocolonial regime has led to further destruction of the land and people to be burdened with the tragic legacy of widespread use of knowingly carcinogenic pesticide in banana cropping during the last half of the 20 th century. The task to overcome these social, economic and environmental disorders is substantial in the renaissance of Martinique in real time. Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries which have been former colonies of European states.
Barbados dollar. Eastern Caribbean dollar. European Union. Anon a. Anon b. Anon c. Anon d. Colonial Referendum in Martinique and. French Guiana», Workers Vanguard, No. Azikiwe, A. Beaudoux, E. Benkimoum, P. Bertrand, J. Bodiguel, A. Abarnou, L. Reynal, G. Franco Boughriet, R. Boutrin, L.
Confiant Brereton, B. Palmer eds. Burton, R. Burac, M. Reno eds. Coat, S. Godard Cour des comptes Couti, J. Daniel, J.Private sex in Martinique
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Unemployment by sex and disability status (thousands)