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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The novelty of this study is that sexual desire during pregnancy is studied from the point of view of the pregnant woman and from that of her male partner. The goal of this study is to see how sexual desire behaves during pregnancy in both partners. For this, a descriptive, longitudinal, and multistage study was deed. Methodologically, in the first stage, the different study variables were described through a single-variate analysis. In the second stage, one variable was related to others by means of a bivariate analysis.
Finally, in the third stage, a multivariate analysis was done, composed of binary logistic regression models and latent growth curves. The confirm that pregnancy influences the sexual desire of both partners, and that sexual desire behaves differently in women than in men during pregnancy. Men have higher levels of sexual desire throughout pregnancy as compared to women. The first trimester of pregnancy is the period when women have less sexual desire.
The main authors who work on sexual desire established the difficulty of clearly defining erotic desire [ 12 ]. Sexual desire has a clear biophysiological origin, with a fairly profiled anatomical—neuro-endocrine structure [ 34 ]. Its function, from an etiological point of view, focuses on the survival of the species through reproduction, i. Despite the general interest and popular use of nomenclature, scientific knowledge on sexual desire is relatively limited.
A consensual definition of sexual desire is yet to be adopted. InMasters and Johnson, in their work on human sexual response, developed the first scientific study on the phenomena observed in the organism in response to sexual stimulus and, in it, they distinguished four successive stages, both in the male sexual response and in the female sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution [ 6 ]; however, at no time did they refer to desire.
It was Lief who, inpointed to sexual desire as a different dimension from arousal and orgasm [ 7 ] and, later inKaplan introduced sexual desire into his three-phase model of sexual response formed by the phases of desire, arousal, and orgasm [ 8 ]. In the first stage, desire is the impulse that le the individual to seek a Women want sex Alpha Illinois experience. In the arousal stage, among many other phenomena, the erection of the penis occurs in men and vaginal lubrication occurs in women. Finally, in the third stage, orgasm occurs, during which muscle contractions take place and a feeling of pleasure, concentrated in the genital region and spreading throughout the body, occurs both in men and women [ 9 ].
Pregnancy brings about a multitude of physical and psychological changes in women, and psychological changes in men. A slight decrease in sexual interest was reported during the first trimester of pregnancy, followed by a variable pattern of conduct in the second trimester, and a marked decrease in the final period of pregnancy [ 101112131415 ], where even levels defined as sexual dysfunction are reached.
In the first three months of pregnancy, an adaptation stage begins, to assume the changes that may occur during the gestation period and the role of parents. Hormonal changes cause a state of emotional lability; thus, the woman Women want sex Alpha Illinois demand more attention and affection on behalf of her partner. It should be noted that many women may require a greater effort to maintain the usual sexual frequency as a result of the onset of nausea, vomiting, repugnance to food and odors, asthenia, and other typical discomforts of this stage such as hypersalivation, headaches, drowsiness, and hypersomnia [ 1617 ].
In the second trimester, the changes observed in the stage persist, although many women express that sexual desire increases, with growing interest in coital and manipulative activity. This is related to the fact that fears generally decrease in this stage as compared to the other two, and because they feel greater well-being since physical discomfort is alleviated or disappears [ 1819 ].
In the third trimester, a ificant decrease in sexual desire was reported by most women [ 20 ]. This is usually due to physical demands given the volume of the maternal abdomen and the feeling of heaviness, the cessation of sexual activity in some cases indicated by the doctor, or psychological issues such as a distorted view of her own body, even considering herself as having little or no attractiveness for the couple due to body changes [ 1321 ]. In the literature, the term sexual desire is understood in two different ways; the first one conceptualizes sexual desire as the impulse to engage in sexual behavior in general [ 22 ], while the second one is described as the obligation to engage in sexual intercourse with a particular person [ 23 ].
In this study, a differentiation between the two types of sexual desire was attempted.
Solitary desire refers to interest in sexual activities that do not involve a partner or may involve abstaining from getting intimate with others. On the contrary, the interest or desire to engage in sexual behavior with another person could serve a different purpose; that is, dyadic desire could also cover the need to intimate with the other [ 24 ]. In the scientific literature, many authors developed different techniques to assess sexual desire.
Wilson et al. Only Spector et al. It is important to assess sexual desire in couples as low or absent sexual desire brings about challenges, not only during the pregnancy period, but Sprecher extends it to romantic relationships in general. Lack of desire can lessen sexual initiation or receptivity, leading to less frequent sexual intercourse and, in turn, threatening the romantic bond by depriving couples of the many benefits of sex, such as intimacy, pleasure, and emotion [ 29 ].
The consequences derived from having low sexual desire may imply painful sexual intercourse for women and even impossible sexual intercourse for men, as it limits genital arousal. All this can lead to couple conflicts, infidelity, or breakdown [ 30 ].
The goal of this study is to identify changes in sexual desire in both men and women during pregnancy. A descriptive longitudinal study was developed.
The studied population consisted of pregnant women and their male partners who Women want sex Alpha Illinois different hospitals in southern Spain for their first prenatal care visit from January to December A sample size was estimated, enough to determine differences of up to nine units between the matched means, with a standard deviation SD of the maximum difference of 30, a ificance level of 0. A total of participants were initially recruited, and 39 were excluded because their partners did not wish to participate in the study or because they did not complete the study for any reason.
This sample was randomly chosen among all women who met the inclusion criteria and whose partners also agreed to participate in the study. The criteria were as described below. As a psychometric instrument, the Spector et al. This scale was upgraded and validated in Spain by Ortega, Sierra, and Zubeidat, showing a high degree of internal cohesion between the items and the reliability of the scale [ 31 ]. It includes two domains: dyadic sexual desire and solitary sexual desire.
were 0. The participants were surveyed four times throughout pregnancy. The first one was in the initial pregnancy consultation, before the ninth week of pregnancy referring to the pre-pregnancy situation ; the second survey took place at week 12 of gestation first trimester of pregnancy ; the third one took place between week 20 and 24 of gestation second trimester ; the fourth and last survey was done between the 32nd week and final week of gestation third trimester of pregnancy. During the first visit, participants were informed of the purpose and development of the study.
An informed written consent form was ed by both partners prior to participation. The confidentiality of the data was ensured as the information was recorded anonymously. The variables under study were age, marital status, occupation, level of studies, of children, and Spector sexual desire inventory score. Frequencies and percentages were determined for the qualitative variables. Means, maximums and minimums, and standard deviations SD were determined for the quantitative variables.
All the study variables were analyzed, relating each of them to the others so as to find associations with statistically ificant differences. For the multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression models were performed.
For the global behavior analysis, latent growth curves with four mixed-effect linear regression models ME-LRM were used for each dependent variable questionnaire domain scoresconsidering the random effect of individuals. This was developed through model I nullmodel II adjusted by the time variablemodel III adjusted by the sex variableand model IV adjusted by time and sex only for those dependent variables whose independent variables were statistically ificant in models II and III.
Each dependent variable questionnaire domain scores was considered and no independent variable was taken into. Each dependent variable questionnaire domain scores was considered, and time was taken as an independent variable. Each dependent variable questionnaire domain scores was considered, and gender was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables solitary desire and dyadic desire were considered because both sex and time were statistically ificant or gave s of statistical ificance.
The mean age of women was slightly lower, aged With dyadic desire, the mean was Cases where, although participants could be engaged in a romantic relationship, marriage was not formalized, were considered singles. Those couples where at least one of the members was married to another person, then divorced, before forming Women want sex Alpha Illinois relationship with their current partner without formalizing the marriage, were considered divorced.
Based on the level of studies, it was found that the highest percentage of the sample completed university or postgraduate studies In terms of the of children, more than half of the sample In the bivariate analysis, statistically ificant differences were found between the mean age of women as compared to men, being slightly lower in women Table 2. As for the test domain score regarding sex comparison, statistically ificant differences were found in all measures of both solitary and dyadic desire. In solitary and dyadic sexual desire, men obtained ificantly higher scores than women during all trimesters of pregnancy Table 5.
When comparing the test scores based on the level of studies, statistically ificant differences were only found in the dyadic sexual desire domain. A higher dyadic desire was linked to a lower level of studies, and vice versa Table 6.
Dyadic and solitary desires were positively and ificantly related to each other. Solitary desire, in general terms, decreased quite a bit in the first trimester, continued to decline albeit slightly in the second trimester, and then recovered a little in the third, without ever reaching its initial levels Figure 1 Table 8. In the first trimester, solitary desire decreased in both sexes, but this was much more noticeable in women. In the second trimester, it somewhat recovered in women, while males, on the other hand, suffered a small drop in solitary desire levels.
In the third trimester, the levels of solitary sexual desire increased in both sexes, but these were always below the initial levels Figure 2 Table 8. Dyadic desire, in general terms, decreased during pregnancy. In the first trimester, it reached the lowest levels.
Then, in the second trimester, it tended to very slightly recover, before decreasing a little further in the third trimester Figure 3 Table 9. When comparing dyadic desire according to sex, it can be seen that, similar to solitary desire, men showed higher levels, but these decreased throughout the pregnancy, resulting in the most noticeable decline toward the third trimester.Women want sex Alpha Illinois
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Changes in Sexual Desire in Women and Their Partners during Pregnancy